Blood glucose is a source of energy for work, growth and living of an organism. Normal concentration of glucose in blood ranges between 3.3 do 5.3mmol/l, measured after 10 hours of not eating.   


Glucose gets into blood from intestines, and after that, it reaches cells under the action of insulin. However, if insulin is insufficient, the glucose level in blood will rise too high, and will drop too low in cells, and they will be left without energy. That is when diabetes occurs.   Blood glucose level exceeding 7.,8mmol/ after a period of no eating ormore than 1,1 mmol/l  two hours after eating a sugar rich meal indicates a hyperglycaemia. 


The first signs are: 

  • dry mouth and thirst 
  • frequent urination 
  • fatigue, blurred vision 
  • itchy skin and mucosae
  • face redness    


If glucose levels continue to rise, the symptoms are:         


  • smell of acetone in the breath
  • slow heart beating   
  • deep breathing   
  • consciousnessimpairment, up to a coma    



There are four types of diabetes:   



  1. Insulin dependant diabetes(TYPE 1): the rarer form of diabetes, which occurs in young, non-obese people. The occurrence is due to an immune system disturbance. As a consequence, the level of insulin reduces until pancreas ceases to produce it. The treatment is insulin.   
  2. insulinindependent(TYPE 2) occurs in almost 90% of diabetics. Accompanied with increased body weight.Insulin is resistant, and cannot keep normal concentration in blood. That is when the blood glucose level increases. 
  3. gestationaloccurs during pregnancy. It is important to observe it due to normal development of the foetus. 
  4. diabetesthat occurs as part of a pancreasdisease, endocrinology system, acquired or congenital diseases, or action of some drugs.    




Diabetes treatment is primarily implemented throughdiet and physical activity,which are implemented during other phases of treatment too. The burden should no be too great. Easy walks are recommended instead. Then, oralantidiabetesare introduced. It is a group of drugs that enhance secretion or action of insulin, and they are introduced in the diabetes TYPE 2 therapy. The last phase of treatment is byinsulin (in all forms of diabetes). This treatment precludes complications.   


During treatment, it is necessary to distribute therapy adequately, since there may occur a drop in the level of glucoses (hypoglycaemia) if there is a too long period between insulin and tablets. The symptoms are: cold sweat, pale skin, fatigue, tremor, confusion, weakness, hunger, headache and nervousness.   It is of great importance that during all stages of treatment there is a diet and mild physical activity, as well as self-control of glucoses, correct implementation of prescribed therapy and regular control.  


B. Sc. ph Sanja Grubor, Boska Pharmacy manager

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